DISCOVERING
AMERICA

The Vikings reached the
northern coasts of the American continent long before Columbus.

Image above: Vikings land at Vinland on Newfoundland. Paint by Tom Lovell.

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The Vikings ship building capability was fundamental to their overseas exploration, trading, conquest and settlement.


Leif Erikson

Leif Erikson or Leif Ericson (c. 970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer and was the first known European to have set foot on continental North America (excluding Greenland), before Christopher Columbus. According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, tentatively identified with the Norse L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada. Later archaeological evidence suggests that Vinland may have been the areas around the Gulf of St. Lawrence and that the L'Anse aux Meadows site was a ship repair station.


Leif was the son of Erik the Red, the founder of the first Norse settlement in Greenland and of Thjodhild (Þjóðhildur), both of Norwegian origin. His place of birth is not known, but he is assumed to have been born in Iceland, which had recently been colonized by Norsemen mainly from Norway. He grew up in the family estate Brattahlíð in the Eastern Settlement in Greenland. Leif had two known sons: Thorgils, born to noblewoman Thorgunna in the Hebrides; and Thorkell, who succeeded him as chieftain of the Greenland settlement.


Vinland

Vinland, Vineland or Winland (Old Norse: Vínland) is the name for North American land explored by Norse Vikings, where Leif Erikson first landed c. 1000, approximately five centuries prior to the voyages of Christopher Columbus and John Cabot. Vinland was the name given to North America as far as it was explored by the Vikings, presumably including both Newfoundland and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence as far as northeastern New Brunswick (where the eponymous grapevines are found).


In 1960, archaeological evidence of a Norse settlement in North America (outside Greenland) was found at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of the island of Newfoundland. Before the discovery of archaeological evidence, Vinland was known only from Old Norse sagas and medieval historiography. The 1960 discovery conclusively proved the pre-Columbian Norse colonization of North American lands and islands beyond Greenland. L'Anse aux Meadows may correspond to the camp Straumfjörð mentioned in the Saga of Erik the Red.


Vinland or "Winland" was the name given to part of North America by the Icelandic Norseman Leif Eiríksson, about year 1000. The exact meaning of this Norse toponym has not been established. Two likely translations of the name have been advanced by linguists:


"land of meadows"

"windswept land"


The earliest record of the name Winland is found in Adam of Bremen's Descriptio insularum Aquilonis ("Description of the Northern Islands", ch. 39), written c. 1075. To write it he visited the King of Denmark, Sweyn II Estridsson who had knowledge of the northern lands. The name contains Old Norse vin which means meadow. Adam implies that the name should be mistranslated via Latin (a language not significantly related to Old Norse) vinum to "wine" (rendered as Old High German win):


Moreover, he has also reported one island discovered by many in that ocean, which is called Winland, for the reason that grapevines grow there by themselves, producing the best wine.



This etymology is retained in the 13th-century Grœnlendinga saga, which provides a circumstantial account of the discovery of Vinland and its being named from the vínber, i.e. "wineberry", a term for grapes or currants (black or red), found there.


There is a long-standing Scandinavian tradition of fermenting berries into wine.[citation needed] The question whether the name refers to actual grapevines (as implied by Adam of Bremen) or just to berries was addressed in a 2010 excavation report on L'Anse aux Meadows.[citation needed] The discovery of butternuts at the site implies that the Norse explored Vinland further to the south, at least as far as St. Lawrence River and parts of New Brunswick, the northern limit for both butternut and wild grapes (Vitis riparia).



Another proposal for the name's etymology, was brought up by Sven Söderberg in 1898 (first published in 1910)

This suggestion involves interpreting the Old Norse name not as vín-land but as vin-land, with a short vowel. Old Norse vin (from Proto-Norse winju) has a meaning of "meadow, pasture".



This interpretation of Vinland as "pasture-land" rather than "vine-land" was accepted by Valter Jansson in his classic 1951 dissertation on the vin-names of Scandinavia, by way of which it entered popular knowledge in the later 20th century. It was rejected by Einar Haugen (1977), who argued that the vin element had changed its meaning from "pasture" to "farm" long before the Old Norse period. Names in vin were given in the Proto-Norse period, and they are absent from places colonized in the Viking Age. Haugen's basis for rejection has since been challenged.



There is a runestone which may have contained a record of the Old Norse name slightly predating Adam of Bremen's Winland. The Hønen Runestone was discovered in Norderhov, Norway shortly before 1817, but it was subsequently lost. Its assessment depends on a sketch made by antiquarian L. D. Klüwer (1823), now also lost but in turn copied by Wilhelm Frimann Koren Christie (1838). The Younger Futhark inscription was dated to c. 1010–50. The stone had been erected in memory of a Norwegian, possibly a descendant of Sigurd Syr. Sophus Bugge (1902) read part of the inscription as


ᚢᛁᚿ᛫(ᛚ)ᛆ(ᛐ)ᛁᚭ᛫ᛁᛌᛆ

uin (l)a(t)ią isa

Vínlandi á ísa

"from Vinland over ice"


This is highly uncertain; the same sequence is read by Magnus Olsen (1951) as


ᚢᛁᚿ᛫ᚴᛆ(ᛚᛐ)ᚭ᛫ᛁᛌᛆ

uin ka(lt)ą isa

vindkalda á ísa

"over the wind-cold ice"


Source: Wikipedia - Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License

Reference:

Laurence Marcellus Larson in Canute the Great: 995 (c.)–1035 and the Rise of Danish Imperialism During the Viking Age, New York: Putnam, 1912 p. 17 Elizabeth Janeway in The Vikings, New York, Random House, 1951 throughout Danver, Steven L. (2010). Popular Controversies in World History: Investigating History's Intriguing Questions. 4. ABC-CLIO. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-59884-078-0. Ingstad, Helge; Ingstad, Anne Stine (2001). The Viking Discovery of America: The Excavation of a Norse Settlement in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. Checkmark Books. ISBN 0-8160-4716-2. "Is L'Anse aux Meadows Vinland?". L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada. Parks Canada. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-05-22. Retrieved 2010-04-20. Significance of the discovery of butternut shells at L'Anse aux Meadows: Birgitta Wallace, "The Norse in Newfoundland: L'Anse aux Meadows and Vinland", The New Early Modern Newfoundland: Part 2 (2003), Vol. 19, No. 1. "Many scholars have dismissed L’Anse aux Meadows as peripheral in the Vinland story (Kristjánsson 2005:39). I myself held that view for a long time. I am now contending that L’Anse aux Meadows is in fact the key to unlocking the Vinland sagas. Two factors crystallized this idea in my mind. One was my subsequent research into early French exploitation outposts in Acadia (Wallace 1999) and the nature of migration (Anthony 1990) ... The second signal was the identification of butternut remains in the Norse stratum at L’Anse aux Meadows. Here was the smoking gun that linked the limited environment of northern Newfoundland with a lush environment in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where wild grapes did indeed exist. The mythical Vinland had a basis in archaeological fact." Birgitta Wallace, "L'Anse aux Meadows, Leif Eriksson's Home in Vinland", Norse Greenland: Selected Papers from the Hvalsey Conference 2008 Journal of the North Atlantic, 2009, 114–25. (meadow, pasture, prairie, etc) "Ulf Hansen, formerly Statens kartverk, Norway.", Forskning.no, 24 October 2012 Archived 21 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Praeterea unam adhuc insulam recitavit a multis in eo repertam occeano, quae dicitur Winland, eo quod ibi vites sponte nascantur, vinum optimum ferentes. Some manuscripts have the gloss id est terra vini. M. Adam Bremensis Lib. IV, Cap. XXXVIIII, ed. B. Schmeidler 1917, p. 275 Archived 2015-07-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Compare the alternative English name for blueberry: whinberry or winberry. Henley, Jon. Bilberries: the true taste of northern England Archived 2017-02-06 at the Wayback Machine. The Guardian, 9 June 2008. "Professor Sven Söderberg om Vinland", Sydsvenska Dagbladet Snällposten, Nr. 295, 30 October 1910. "On a philological basis it can hardly be determined whether the first member is to be interpreted as 'vine', as most have done, or as 'pasture, meadow'." Sverre Marstrander, "Arkeologiske funn bekrefter sagaens Vinlandsberetninger", Forskningsnytt, XIX:3 (1974), 2–11. It remains a common place-name element in Scandinavia, e.g. in Bjørgvin and Granvin, also "possibly in a kenning for Sjaelland, viney, where we have no means of knowing exactly what it implies" (Haugen 1977). A cognate name also existed in Old English (Anglo-Saxon), in the name of the village Woolland in Dorset, England: this was written "Winlande" in the 1086 Domesday Book, and it is interpreted as "meadow land" or "pasture land".[according to whom?] "Was Vinland in Newfoundland", Proceedings of the Eighth Viking Congress, Arhus. 24–31 August 1977, ed. Hans Bekker-Nielsen, Peter Foote, Olaf Olsen. Odense University Press. 1981.[1]. See also Kirsten A. Seaver, Maps, Myths and Men. The story of the Vinland Map, Stanford University Press, p. 41. P. B. Taylor, "The Hønen runes: A survey", Neophilologus Volume 60, Issue 1 (January 1976), pp. 1–7. 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Adam of Bremen, Descriptio insularum Aquilonis Archived 2007-12-23 at the Wayback Machine. chapters 37–38 (in Latin) Livingston, Michael (March 2004). "More Vinland maps and texts". Journal of Medieval History. 30 (1): 25–44. doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2003.12.001. translations in: B.F. de Costa, Pre-Columbian Discovery of America by the Northmen Archived 2008-07-05 at the Wayback Machine., Albany NY, Munsell, 1890 "Historia Norwegiae" (PDF). vsnrweb-publications.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-02-21. chronicle entries translated in A.M. Reeves et al. The Norse Discovery of America Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. (1906) via saacred-texts.com McManis D. 1969. The Traditions of Vinland. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 59(4) doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1969.tb01812.x Kaups M, Some Observations on Vinland, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Volume 60, Issue 3, pp. 603–09, September 1970. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1970.tb00746.x "Log In to IUScholarWorks Repository". scholarworks.iu.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-07-30. "The Project Gutenberg eBook of Eirik The Red's Saga:, by The Rev. J. Sephton". www.gutenberg.org. Archived from the original on 2015-07-12. R. Cleasby & G. Vigfusson An Icelandic-English Dictionary Archived 2006-07-16 at the Wayback Machine. (1874) via the Germanic Lexicon Project Where is Vinland: L'Anse aux Meadows Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. at canadianmysteries.ca "Helge Marcus Ingstad, champion of the Vikings, died on March 29th, aged 101". The Economist Newspaper Limited. April 12, 2001. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2017. 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